Example 2: An HOD-style model with additional features

In this section of the Tutorial on building an HOD-style model, we’ll build a composite model that is not part of the Halotools code base by composing together a customized collection of Halotools-provided features. Before reading on, be sure you have read and understood Example 1: Building a simple HOD-style model.

There is also an IPython Notebook in the following location that can be used as a companion to the material in this section of the tutorial:

halotools/docs/notebooks/hod_modeling/hod_modeling_tutorial2.ipynb

By following this tutorial together with this notebook, you can play around with your own variations of the models we’ll build as you learn the basic syntax. The notebook also covers supplementary material that you may find clarifying, so we recommend that you read the notebook side by side with this documentation.

Overview of the new model

The model we’ll build will be based on the zheng07 HOD, but we’ll add an additional component model that governs whether or not our centrals and satellites are quiescent or star-forming. The new component model we’ll use is HaloMassInterpolQuenching. In this model, galaxies are assigned a boolean designation as to whether or not they are quiescent. Briefly, the way the model works is that you specify what the quiescent fraction is at a set of input control points in halo mass, and the model interpolates between these control points to calculate the quiescent fraction at any mass. See the HaloMassInterpolQuenching docstring for details.

Source code for an HOD model with a new feature

from halotools.empirical_models import TrivialPhaseSpace, Zheng07Cens
another_cens_occ_model =  Zheng07Cens()
another_cens_prof_model = TrivialPhaseSpace()

from halotools.empirical_models import NFWPhaseSpace, Zheng07Sats
another_sats_occ_model =  Zheng07Sats()
another_sats_prof_model = NFWPhaseSpace()

from halotools.empirical_models import HaloMassInterpolQuenching
sat_quenching = HaloMassInterpolQuenching('halo_mvir',
        [1e12, 1e13, 1e14, 1e15], [0.35, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9],
        gal_type = 'satellites')
cen_quenching = HaloMassInterpolQuenching('halo_mvir',
        [1e12, 1e15], [0.25, 0.95],
        gal_type = 'centrals')

from halotools.empirical_models import HodModelFactory
zheng07_with_quenching = HodModelFactory(
        centrals_occupation = another_cens_occ_model,
        centrals_profile = another_cens_prof_model,
        satellites_occupation = another_sats_occ_model,
        satellites_profile = another_sats_prof_model,
        centrals_quenching = cen_quenching,
        satellites_quenching = sat_quenching
        )

Comments

First note how similar this code is to the code in Source code for the zheng07 model. In fact, it is identical except for the initializing of the cen_quenching and sat_quenching component models, and the additional keywords passing them to the factory. So this model will behave in the exact same way as the zheng07 model, except

  1. this model has additional methods for computing the mean quiescent fraction as a function of halo mass for centrals and satellites,
  2. when you use this model to populate mocks, the resulting galaxy_table will have a quiescent column providing a boolean designation for whether or not each mock galaxy is quiescent.

Thus you could use this model to make predictions, for example, for the clustering of red and blue galaxy populations. Or, alternatively, you could fit the parameters of this model to observational measurements of the clustering of red/blue galaxies.

Model-building syntax candy: the baseline_model_instance mechanism

The HodModelFactory comes with a convenient feature that makes it easier to add new features to existing models. By passing in a baseline_model_instance keyword argument, you can automatically inherit all the features of the model bound to that keyword, plus whatever additional arguments you may also pass to the factory. For example:

from halotools.empirical_models import PrebuiltHodModelFactory
ordinary_zheng07_model = PrebuiltHodModelFactory('zheng07')

from halotools.empirical_models import HaloMassInterpolQuenching
sat_quenching = HaloMassInterpolQuenching('halo_mvir',
        [1e12, 1e13, 1e14, 1e15], [0.35, 0.5, 0.6, 0.9],
        gal_type = 'satellites')
cen_quenching = HaloMassInterpolQuenching('halo_mvir',
        [1e12, 1e15], [0.25, 0.95],
        gal_type = 'centrals')

from halotools.empirical_models import HodModelFactory
zheng07_with_quenching = HodModelFactory(
        baseline_model_instance = ordinary_zheng07_model,
        centrals_quenching = cen_quenching,
        satellites_quenching = sat_quenching
        )

The zheng07_with_quenching composite model produced by the code above is identical in every respect to the composite model built in the Source code for an HOD model with a new feature section.

The baseline_model_instance feature is designed to make it easy to study the effects of swapping in and out individual components without having to build a new model from scratch. This feature is made possible by the fact that all instances of Halotools composite models carry with them the instructions from which they were originally built. So by passing in an instance of a composite model to the HodModelFactory via the baseline_model_instance keyword, the composite model instance is able to inform the factory of how to build a new instance of itself.

Note that the use of the baseline_model_instance feature illustrated in Model-building syntax candy: the baseline_model_instance mechanism can be applied equally well to additional features not present in the baseline model, and/or to replace features that already exist in the baseline model. For example, if you wanted to build an alternate version of zheng07 in which the profiles of satellites were something different from NFW, then when passing in the baseline_model_instance you would also pass a satellites_profile keyword that contained the alternative profile model you want.

This tutorial continues with Example 3: An HOD-style model with a feature of your own creation.